A Brief History of the Development of Jazz and Blues
Jazz - a musical movement that arose, like the blues, as a result of a synthesis of African and European cultures. The roots of jazz lie in AfricaThe music of the African folk music was a very special rhythm. It was characterized by a special rhythm and was associated with religious rituals. African rituals often accompanied by collective dancing to certain rhythms.
When Europeans began to transport slaves to the American continent, gradually the number of Africans living in European culture grew larger and larger. This set the stage for the beginning of the merger European and African cultures.
After abolition of slavery In America, former slaves became full members of European society. They gained access to education. This gave a new impetus to the fusion of European and African cultures, resulting in a world of music at the end of the nineteenth century blues and jazz begin to take shape.
The development of blues and jazz in Europe
There is a reason why blues and jazz have a lot of room for improvisation. In fact, the whole beauty of the melody, the whole meaning of it, lies in this feature. In classical European music, for example, there is not much room for improvisation, but in jazz it is the opposite. It comes at the expense of the structure of the melody.
African folk music was largely based on polyrhythmiaThe music is based on cross-rhythmics, on rhythmic polyphony, while the harmony and melody of the Africans are poorly developed, which together give the musician a great opportunity to move easily away from the main theme, to dive into the improvisationand give free rein to his talent, and then return to the main theme. In this way, European culture contributed harmony and melody in African music, added characters and tones, and picked up new means of of expression.
Further development of musical styles
Jazz and blues constantly evolving. By the nature of the melody, you can tell approximately what period of time a particular composition belongs to.
TO Twentieth or Thirtieth years can be attributed to the term Swing. Swing is an expressive means in jazz based on pulsation and constant deviations from the rhythm, which created a feeling of a large accumulation of energy that was about to explode and splash out on the listener.
TO Fortieth years refers to the style of bop. Bebop opened the era of modern jazz.
The main characteristic features are fast tempo, complex improvisations with changes in harmony. Bebop is mostly performed in small ensembles.
However, still, in the period from the twenties to the forties the fashion was more for large and loud jazz orchestras, big bands. Such orchestras worked out their scores well and played already memorized improvisations at concerts, also showcasing their improvisational soloists.
Gradually, large orchestras began to squeeze small jazz ensembles. Their concerts were often even spontaneous, and the improvisations were more varied than the memorized parts of the big bands, which also attracted the audience.
It was in this environment that the style was born. mainstream. Musicians from various large orchestras also joined in small groups to feel freedom and really give themselves to the spirit of improvisation, to express their soul and convey their emotions to the audience, instead of just reading from the sheet of memorized and boring parts.
Since the big orchestras were mostly played by real professionals and masters of their craft, their improvisations were really great, even though bebop dominated and the orchestra members played mostly swing style, their improvisations were no less successful.